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T - Z

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Water Purifier
(India) for £13 - US$22 - EUR 15 - (from BBC News  Dec. 7, 2009)

The Tata 'Swach' purifier is less than one metre tall, and does not need running water or electricity to work. Tata Swach is based on an innovative concept developed by the TCS Innovation Labs. The efficiency of the product has been tested to meet internationally accepted water purification standards.This Swach water device - named after the Hindi word for clean - will cost under 1,000 rupees ($21.50; £13), according to one Indian report.The Swach uses ash from rice milling to filter out bacteria, and also uses tiny silver particles to kill harmful germs that can lead to diseases like diarrhoea, cholera and typhoid. Dr Murali Sastry, the chief scientific officer, Innova-tion Centre, and one of the top nano-scientists in the world, said superior technology was used in developing Tata Swach.  Tata Chemicals noted they would be manufacturing one million units per annum at their Haldia complex in West Bengal initially and would increase production depending on requirements.

Water Harvesting Technologies

The Air-to-Water Process

There are different technologies today that extract water from the air resulting in pure and clean water. This technology is mobile and can be easily deployed wherever there is a need for water. There is no need for pipes, no need for drilling wells. The water is free from bacteria, complies to WHO, BIS norms and as it is in a closed container it is free from pathogenic microorganisms it is safe from waterborne and foodborne diseases caused by protozoa, viruses and bacteria.

These machines are already being used by the Red Cross and the USA military deployed this technology in Haiti providing the population with pouches/bags of clean drinking water. The process can use either salt, or a cooling system, use distillation or a filtering system, run on electricity or solar panels. These units are already sold for home use, providing 25 gallons a day or for humanitarian needs providing 600 gallons a day.

Another technology is by using windmills to produce not only to  energy for the electricity grid but also to produce water from the air as a by-product from the cooling process. While this is a precious resource, it is considered a by-product as no extra energy is needed to create this.

Wind Power for Clean Water and Electricity

Operators maintaining  windmills and blades noticed that when they went inside the structure that they found it to be wet and realised that the cooling of the air created a natural and continuous condensation process resulting in water. Today some windmill manufacturers incorporate ways by which this water can be harvested and used.  This will increasingly be the case and as this water is a by-product it is basically free.

The Plasma Arc Technology and Water Generation

The Plasma Arc Technology uses ionised air (gas) that becomes an effective electrical conductor creating an electric lightning-like arc between two electrodes that produces  temperatures as high as 16'648 ºC (30'000 F). Used within a sealed container this extreme heat decomposes and melts hazardous, toxic, medical, sludge or liquid waste and converts these useful products, e.g. gasses, water, energy/electricity and vitrified solids.

The dehydration and vaporising process produces hydrogen, oxygen, water and  electricity while the highly compacted dark vitrified solids containing metals, minerals and silicates can be sold to be used in a wide variety of industrial and construction applications. The heat generated in the plasma chamber can be recycled to be used again for the dehydrating and drying process of new waste while the sync-gasses freed in the decomposition process can be sold on. Water is therefore a valuable by-product related to this waste-disposal technology that also offers other useful spin-offs.
Plasma-arc waste disposal systems come in different sizes and can therefore be used also for cities and towns of varying sizes. These units can be placed near urban  centres as they operate on the principles of the new clean energy sciences. This technology has already been deployed  in India, Chinam(PRC), Japan, France, UK, Canada and in the USA.  Maintenance can be undertaken by specially trained professionals to replace the plasma torch, the electrodes and filters and any person with technical know-how can operate the system. The system is safe and quiet. However, the very high temperatures used in the plasma process require a regular (yearly) replacement of the liner used to line the metal container. As most types of waste are broken into basic elemental components at temperatures of 4'000ºC (7250F) a plant in Canada is using these lower temperatures and the use of bricks as a liner to convert waste mainly to electricity, selling this to the power grid and immediately recuperating on initial outlay and bringing down maintenance costs. Being a new technology companies will be keen to find solutions to materials and costs in order to compete in what promises to be a market of interests especially to developing countries that have not yet invested in older polluting technologies like incinerators and still using landfills to deal with their waste.

Some of the many by- products of the PCS process:

• Transmutation of hazardous and medical wastes as liquid or sludge or in solid form
• Water production for cooling, sanitation or with additional filtering for consumption
• Production and sale of Hydrogen, Oxygen and other gasses
• Electric Power generation
• Fuel cells

















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